Citizens’ Rights

Citizens’ Rights

XXI. Right to a Healthy Environment and Sustainable Development

Article 112

Protection of the environment—in which today’s generation and future generations shall have a productive social life—is a common duty. Accordingly, economic activities and otherwise, which are accompanied by environmental pollution and irreversible environmental damage are prohibited. Citizens have a right to environmental conservation, improvement and beautification and promotion of a culture of environmental protection. The Government shall take this right into consideration in its developmental, economic, social, cultural, defense and security plans, decisions, and actions, and shall combat pollution and environmental destruction.

Article 113

Every citizen has the right to enjoy a healthy and clean environment, which is free of various pollutants, including air pollution and water pollution, and environmental pollution arising from harmful waves and radiation; and, shall have the right to be aware of the extent and consequences of existing environmental pollutants. Executive bodies will take due measures for reducing environmental pollutants, particularly in big cities.  

Article 114

Any action aimed at infrastructural or industrial development, such as building dams and roads or extraction, petrochemical and nuclear industries and the like, shall be executed after an environmental impact assessment. Implementation of developmental projects shall be subject to strict observance of environmental considerations.

Article 115

The Government will take action for achieving comprehensive and balanced sustainable development and elimination of international barriers by playing an effective international role through economic cooperation, exchange of information, transfer of technical know-how and cultural exchange. Citizens have the right to enjoy the benefits and advantages of new technologies in all areas, including in health, medical, pharmaceutical, food, economic and trade.


Article 112: Article 50 of the Constitution; General Environmental Policies (2015); Environmental Conservation and Improvement Act (1995); Islamic Penal Code (2013).

Article 113: Article 50 of the Constitution; para 7 of the Document of the State Comprehensive Scientific Map (2010, by the Supreme Council of Cultural Revolution); articles 184 and 193 of the Five-Year Development Plan of Islamic Republic of Iran Act (2010); para 7 of the General Policies of the Resistance Economy (2013).

Article 114: Articles 26 and 34 of the Constitution; Part (Z) of the Land-Use Planning General Policies (2011).

Article 115: Articles 3.2-4 and 43.1 of the Constitution; Document of the State Comprehensive Scientific Map (2010, by the Supreme Council of Cultural Revolution); Act on Access to Nuclear Energy for Peaceful Purposes (2005).